Organizações Globo | INA Global

Organizações Globo

Article  by  Erika THOMAS  •  Published 17.09.2010  •  Updated 14.10.2010
Organizações Globo is the most important media conglomerate in Brazil and one of the four major media groups in South America. 

Summary

Introduction


Organizações Globo is the largest media conglomerate in Brazil, and one of the four big media groups in Latin America[+] NoteWith Televisa (Mexico) Cisneros (Venezuela), and Clarín (Argentina).X [1]. This empire, now run by the Marinho[+] NoteRoberto Irineu, José Roberto and João Roberto Marinho.X [2] brothers, was founded by Roberto Marinho (1904-2003) who inherited the daily newspaper O Globo in 1925. He then set up Radio Globo in 1944, followed by TV Globo (Rede Globo) in 1965. The television channel Globo has served as a unifying force for the companies within the Organizações Globo group since it was set up. Rede Globo was set up in 1965 with the support of the American group Time Life following the military coup d’etat, and enjoyed record viewing ratings up to the 1980s. It still pulls in 52% of the prime-time audience and 75% of advertising revenue thanks in particular to the channel’s flagship products: telenovelas. It exports its programmes to over one hundred countries throughout the world, and 90% of what is broadcast during the prime-time viewing period on the channel is designed and created by the teams of Globo. Organizações Globo also have a free channel (Futura) as well as twenty-six other pay channels broadcast via cable or satellite through a partnership with SKY[+] NoteNumber one private channel in Brazil via satellite and the DTH (Direct to Home) digital systemX [3] and a majority shareholding in NET[+] NoteThe largest multi-service telecommunication company via cable in Latin America.X [4]. In 1996, the group launched its first channel dedicated entirely to news, called Globo News; it can be received through cable or via satellite or on the Internet for Globo.com subscribers. The website http://globonews.globo.com/ puts the channel’s videos and news on-line. According to the group’s figures, the channel has over 2 million subscribers.
In the publishing sector, the Organizações Globo group publishes four daily newspapers via Infoglobo (O Globo, Extra, Expresso and Valor Economico) as well as twenty-seven magazines published by Editora Globo[+] NoteJames Gorgen, Sistema Central de Mídia: proposta de um modelo sobre os conglomerados de comunicação no Brasil, Masters dissertation, Universidade Federal, Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 2009.X [5] including fifteen weekly or monthly publications that cover news, leisure, fashion, cars, finance, education, home decoration and celebrity news. On the daily publication market, the magazine Época, in the Globo group, takes second place in terms of sales figures for magazines in Brazil, with circulation figures of 420,500, ahead of Istoé (Editora Três) and far behind Veja, part of the Abril group,which has the highest sales figures, with an average weekly circulation of 1,089,900 per week. The group does not appear in the top places for monthly sales figures, which go mainly to the Abril[+] Notewhich owns four of the five monthly magazines with the top sales figures in the country.X [6]group.
 




 
 
The newspapers O Globo and Extra both belong to the Globo group, and are in third and fourth positions respectively in terms of sales figures with an average circulation of 257,000 and 248,000, behind Folha de S.Paulo (Folha group, 295,000 issues sold) and Super Notícia[+] NoteSempre Editora, a popular low-price tabloid newspaper. X [7] (289,000 issues sold[+] NoteSource IVC 2009 X [8]). The Globo group joined forces with the Folha group in 2000 to create the daily business newspaper Valor Econômico which now sells 53,947 issues and is at number 21 in terms of sales figures[+] NoteFive million newspapers are bought daily in Brazil. X [9].
 

 
Cinema is the last audiovisual segment that the group invests in. Since it was set up in 1998, Globo Filmes has become the largest producer and co-producer of Brazilian cinema with an excellent ratio between the number of films produced and the number of spectators attracted by these films, which recreate the visual impact and make use of the themes that generated the success of TV Globo[+] NoteBy way of example, various televised short-format series may be cited (Os Normais, A grande familia, Casseta e Planeta) which are turned into full-length films by public demand, just like some mini-series (O Auto da Compadecida)X [10]. The national “independent” cinema of Globo Filmes however is struggling to achieve less than 20% of the total number of Brazilian cinema-goers[+] NoteFor the data considered, see BUTCHER, Pedro. A Dona da História: origens da Globo Filmes e seu impacto no audiovisual brasileiro. Masters dissertations, Universidade Federal do Rio deJaneiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2006. Lucas BUENO MAIA, Produção, distribuição e exibição – cinema brasileiro da retomada (1995-2005), Research Thesis, Universidade Federal Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, 2008. X [11].
 
 
 
 
Sistema Globo de Rádio includes 168 commercial radio stations and a community radio station[+] NoteIdem.X [12] and provides investment in radio services for the group[+] NoteThe audience rating figures are more difficult to obtain as most of the ratings are by audience/city.X [13]. Globo AM comes in at first place in the ranking based on the audience in Rio (AM and FM combined) with an average of 258,000 listeners[+] NoteSource: Ibope September 2009 cited: Analise Comunicação Rio de JaneiroX [14] in 2009, and in São Paulo (AM radio stations) with an average of 146,000 listeners between 6 a.m. and 7 p.m. between February and April 2010[+] NoteSource and detailed information can be viewed on-line X [15]:
 
The record market is also a sector that Organizações Globo is involved in with Som Livre, which is in third place behind Universal Music and Sony/BMG and ahead of Warner Music and Emi Music:

 
 
 
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The general public, the international market and the Internet: the objectives of Organizações Globo to keep its place as

The group’s 2009 annual report announced that profits were up by 10% compared with the previous year, coming to 8,386 billion reais (around 3.567 billion Euros) and placed the emphasis on its aim to inform, entertain and work towards creating a more caring society[+] NoteIn the 2001 report, the Organizações state their media mission: “Create, produce, and distribute quality content to inform, educate and entertain while building up relationships which improve the lives of individuals and communities “, while paying homage to the Roberto Marinho Foundation created in 1977 as a non-profit body to develop educational and social projects. X [16]. Yet, even if the leadership of the group is far from threatened, the drop in audience ratings, a crisis of confidence and a certain worsening of the group’s image among the more educated strata of Brazilian society, may be evidence of the empire’s limits. Because of this level of media concentration, the group has become one of the most influential media groups, with a presence in 80% of all that is read, seen and heard in the Brazilian media[+] NoteSee article by Fabiana Rodrigues “Globo: concentrada e internacionalizada” in Razon y Palabra, 15th April 2010, ISSN 1605 4806. X [17], which in turn may be seen as a threat to democracy. Since the end of the 1980s, the falling ratings of the Globo channel, the linchpin of Organizações Globo, have led to the group rethinking its audiovisual communication strategy: journalism and the telenovelas are to be overhauled to more closely meet the public’s[+] NoteRuth Viana, annotation: “O globo, Jornal Nacional” Revista Jornalismo BrasileiroX [18] expectations which were determined using opinion surveys organised by Organizações Globo. In 1995, in order to increase productivity through a reduction in production costs, Globo inaugurated its audiovisual production centre, the Central Globo de Produções, also referred to as Projac[+] NoteContraction of "Projeto Jacarepaguá", see article in FrenchX [19], which is the largest audiovisual centre in Latin America and is situated in Jacarepaguá (West Rio). This dream factory, where every year around 2,500 hours of Globo[+] NoteSource : Memoria GloboX [20] programmes are made, is located on a 1.65 million m² site of which 70% is Atlantic forest and 137,000 m² is built on[+] NoteMemoria GloboX [21]. The group, which has been exporting its telenovelas since the end of the 1970s[+] NoteSee Erika THOMAS, "Voyage au pays des ancêtres, les telenovelas brésiliennes au Portugal" [Journey to the country of our ancestors, Brazilian telenovelas in Portugal] (2009) in Les médias en Europe, influences interculturelles, [The media in Europe, intercultural influences] Temps des Médias, Revue d’Histoire n°11, SPHM issue.X [22] to 130 countries throughout the world, would also like to gain more international visibility.
 


 
 
The creation of the channel Globo International in 1999 was to constitute a new step towards this objective, but it not until 2000 with the creation of the Globo.com portal that the group actually opened up to new opportunities for developing its business internationally and increasing its visibility, thus enabling a convergence of its media content: the portal quickly became a showcase for its radio stations, newspapers, magazines, and films produced by the group, and of course the channel Rede Globo. Every day, hundreds of videos are updated and added to the portal and its sites, such as www.video.globo.com and www.memoriaglobo.globo.com, thus forming the channel’s archives. In 2005 the site http://globoesporte.globo.com contributed to the success of the group on the Internet, with 300,000 subscribers. The portal raked in 40 million reais in revenue (around 17 million Euros). In 2006, the portal invested 20 million reais (8.48 million Euros) to create the GMC Globo Media Center, a new version of the video portal.
 


 


 

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Curb the financial crisis by focusing on leading sectors of national audiovisual productions

Organizações Globo received an initial investment of a little over 6 million dollars from the Time-life group between 1963 and 1966[+] NoteDaniel Herz, A historia secreta da rede globo, Tché Porto Alegre, 1987.X [23], but the group has been going through a financial crisis since the 1990s. This has led to the group adopting a development strategy that focuses on markets where the group has a position of uncontested leader, and which fosters foreign financial partnerships. The sale in October 2009 of the newspaper Diário de São Paulo[+] NotePublished since 2001 by Infoglobo.X [24] to the Traffic group is an illustration of the group’s strategy of focusing on the audiovisual sector. In the same vein, opening up the capital of pay channel distribution companies – NET (cable and MMDS[+] NoteMicrowave Multipoint Distribution System. X [25]) and SKY (DTH[+] NoteDirect to Home (broadcast via satellite).X [26]) – to foreign investors is also a sign of the group’s financial and economic situation: the Mexican entrepreneur Carlos Slim (Telemex group) owns around 49% of NET and Rupert Murdoch is the majority investor in SKY[+] NoteJames Gorgen, Sistema Central de Mídia: proposta de um modelo sobre os conglomerados de comunicação no Brasis. X [27].
 
The debt of Organizações Globo comes to 1.527 billion reais (or 666 million Euros) with a long term reimbursement profile where less than 3.5 % of the debt only is consolidated in the short term. In such an exceptional context, the Organizações Globo group is feeling optimistic. The report detailing the group’s financial situation in 2009, published by Globo Comunicações e Participações on 30th March 2010, announced net profits of 8.386 billion reais (around 3.567 billion Euros) for the sector that includes the Globo channel, the private channels, globo.com, TV Globo Internacional, Globo Filme, Som Livre and Editora Globo. This constitutes an increase of 10% compared with the previous year during which it achieved 7,602 billion reais[+] NoteIt should be noted that, as stated by Gorgen (op.cit), that the conglomerate has been restricting access to its figures to investors, so that even the government body, the Commission des Valeurs Mobilières (CVM) in charge of presenting the financial statements of various Brazilian companies no longer contains financial data on the media conglomerate Organizaçoes Globo. Consequently, the only data accessible is that provided by the conglomerate itself. X [28]. The Globo channel brings together the group’s companies amounting to 7.7 billion reais (around 3.234 billion Euros). The greater part of this revenue comes from advertising investment; the channel has a 45% market share in terms of audience[+] NoteSource: Midia dados Brasil 2009.X [29], and receives 73.5% of television advertising investment that brought in 7 milliard reais (a little under three billion Euros) in 2009[+] NoteData from the Projeto Inter-Meios calculating the advertising investment in Brazilian media in 2010.X [30], leaving its competitors Record (10.1%) SBT (8.7%), Band (4.9%) and Rede TV (1.9%)[+] NoteJornal O Estado de Sao Paulo, Sem Intervalo, 25th March 2010, quoted in Abril.comX [31] way behind.


 
The segmented structure of the Globo channel – with its own stations in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Brasília and Recife, as well as its 116 affiliated stations in the rest of the country – gives small, medium and large advertisers the opportunity to feature on Globo through various forms of advertising, including over sixteen million advertising spots per year[+] NoteSource: Rede Globo veicula mais de 16 milhões de comerciais por ano, interview with the commercial manager of Globo, Wlly Haas, 19/04/2009. X [32] as well as merchandisefor the channel’s telenovelas and mini-series. According to the president of Organizaçoes Globo, Roberto Irineu Marinho, in 2009, around eleven thousand hours of national products were created by the group which employs 12,000 people, and which recruited over one hundred and thirty independent Brazilian audiovisual producers[+] NoteFinancial report for March 2010.X [33].
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Rede Globo, the audiences of the country’s top channel dropping off

Throughout the two decades after it was created TV Globo enjoyed audience ratings figures for its flagship shows of between 60 and 80%. The telenovelas and the televised news show have been suffering falling audience ratings since the start of the decade. All programmes combined, broadcast from Monday to Sunday from 7 a.m. to midnight by TV Globo, have taken a significant fall in audience rating: from 55% market share in 2004 to 43.3% in 2008.
 
 

 


Pie chart created from Midia Dados 2009 data.
 
The channel may well have very clearly retained it unrivalled position as market leader, but the fall in audience ratings affecting the telenovelas and the Jornal Nacional appear to suggest that these television productions are having increasing difficulty, unlike the past, in keeping happy the public that prefers other shows or other activities. Three telenovelas never seen elsewhere are broadcast daily on the channel and still make up one of the main budgetary investments of Rede Globo. According to the Organizações Globo group, the average cost of an episode of a telenovela is 200,000 dollars. A telenovela with on average two hundred episodes therefore comes to around 40 million dollars. These products were attracting a 60 % market share in terms of audience figures, which was still a relative drop compared with previous decades, but telenovelas are now struggling to reach a 40% audience rating, a figure which is now considered to be the minimum success threshold. The drop has been harsh for telenovelas shown at 6 p.m. which have suffered a loss of 43% in audience figures since 2006. The figures for the 7 p.m. shows may vary by 16 audience rating points between Bang Bang (broadcast between 3rd October 2005 and 3rd April 2006) which obtained a 27.2% audience share and Da Cor do Pecado (broadcast between 26th January and 28th August 2004) which obtained 43%. The primetime telenovelas, which are the most elaborate in terms of content and the most expensive, are still getting strong audience ratings, but they have still been suffering falling public viewing figures, especially over the past five years. They lost a total of 18% of audience share between 2000 and 2008, and the figures continue to fall with Passione which has been broadcast since 17th May 2010[+] Note*Telenovelas broadcast between 2000 and 2008: 16 telenovelas at 6 p.m. (Esplendor (2000): 27.6%; O cravo e a rosa (2000 :2001): 30.6%; Estrela guia (2001): 30.9%; A padroeira (2001/2002): 26%; Coração de estudante (2002): 29.9%; Sabor da paixão (2002/2003): 24%; Agora é que são elas (2003): 28.4%; Chocolate com pimenta (2003/2004): 35.3%; Cabocla (2004): 34.6%; Como uma onda (2004/2005): 26.8%; Alma gemea (2005/2006): 38.6%; Sinha Moça (2006): 33.1%; O profeta (2006/2007) 31.8%; Eterna Magia (2007): 25.9%; Desejo proibido (2007/2008): 23.4%; Ciranda de Pedra (2008): 21.6%); 15 telenovelas at 7 p.m. (Uga Uga (2000 :2001) : 37.9%; Um anjo caiu do ceu (2001): 33.6%; As filhas da mae (2001/2002): 27.8%; Desejos de mulher (2002): 32.6%; O beijo do vampiro (2002/2003): 28.2; Kubanacan (2003/2004): 34.5%; Da cor do pecado (2004): 43.1% Começar denovo (2004/2005): 31%; A lua me disse(2005): 32.4%; Bang Bang (2005/2006): 27.2%; Cobras e lagartos (2006): 38.2%; Pé ne jaca (2006/2007) 29.5%; Sete pecados (2007/2008): 29.6%; Beleza Pura (2008): 27.7,6%; Três Irmas (launch) 2008: 33%); 13 telenovelas at 9 p.m. (Laços de familia (2000 :2001) : 44.9%; Porto dos milagres (2001): 44.6%; O clone (2001/2002): 47%; Esperança (2002/2003): 38%; Mulheres apaixonadas (2003): 46,6%; Celebridades (2003/2004): 46% Senhora do destino (2004/2005): 50.4%; America (2005): 49.4; Belissima (2005/2006): 48.5%; Paginas da vida (2006/2007) 46.8%; Paraiso tropical (2007): 42.8%; Duas Caras (2007/2008): 41.1%; A favorita (2008) 37.2%).X [34].
 
 
 
The other showcase of the channel, the Jornal Nacional, the news programme broadcast at 8 p.m. since 1969 and which was reaching up to 79.9% of the national audience in 1979[+] NoteREZENDE, Guilherme Jorge, Telejornalismo no Brasil, um perfil editorial. São Paulo: Summus, 2000.X [35] is also undergoing ratings problems and in 2009, it attained a 31 % market share, or a fall in 20% of its audience compared with 2000[+] NoteRicardo Feltrin, UOL Noticias, 8/12/2009X [36]. It still remains however the most watched news programme in Brazil, followed by the news programme of its competitor, the Jornal da Record, which scored a 9% audience rating in 2009, or an increase of 100% in its audience rating compared with 2000. This spectacular improvement is far from a threat: Rede Globo obtains the largest share of advertising revenue in the country and holds the broadcasting rights for the main sporting events (Brazilian and world football championships, UEFA, Formula 1). The Organizações Globo group makes up for the fall in audience ratings of TV Globo with good audience figures for its programmes broadcast over the Internet[+] NoteThe Globo.com website is in 6th position for Brazilian portals with 21.7 million visitors per month behind Google, MSN, UOL, IG and Terra and 4th if one only takes into account the information portal which is behind UOL, IG and terra. (Source: Ibope 26 /11/2009).X [37], which prompts the leading group to play down its current weaknesses, explaining away these scores with new viewer practices. The fall in audience rating for the telenovelas coincided with the development of private channels with 2.5 million subscribers in 1997/1998, increasing to over 6 million in 2008[+] NoteSource Midia Dados 2009.X [38]. In the same way, the even more spectacular increase in Internet subscriptions - from 5 million subscribers in 2001 to over 24 million in 2008[+] NoteRevista Abril, Audiencia das novelas da globo, Renata Pallottini, November 2008.X [39] - demonstrates new patterns that have been emerging in Brazilian homes since around 2000. The number of television sets switched on in the country went from 66 % during prime time to 59 % at the same time in 2009 is evidence of this[+] NoteSource Ibope 2009 São Paulo 7/12/2009.X [40].
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Abril press and Record television: the share held by the competitors


 
Seven national groups control 80% of what is read, seen and heard in the Brazilian media[+] NoteThe Globo group does not necessarily have a majority presence in all forms of media, but it is nonetheless the most powerful of all the groups, because it is present everywhere (press, radio, television, cinema etc.) to a significant degree. See Rogério Christofoletti on this matter, “Dez impasses para uma efetiva crítica de mídia no Brasil” in Sala de prensa, n°63, January 2004, year V, vol.2.X [41]: Organizações Globo is the largest of these groups. After that come the Abril group followed by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (Record group) the two main competitors of Organizações Globo[+] NoteAfter that there is the Silvio Santos group (the Abravanel family), Les Frias, the Saad group and finally Mesquita. These latter four groups nonetheless have a significant share of media control: the Abravanel group owns the SBT[2] channel; Les Frias own the most read newspaper in the country (Folha de São Paulo) as well as a survey institute (Datafolha), other newspapers, investment in the largest Internet portal in Brazil (UOL), a press agency (Agencia Folha) and, in partnership with Globo, the most influential business newspaper journal in Brazil (Valor Econômico); the Saad group owns the Rede Bandeirantes channel as well as AM and FM radios; Les Mesquita are the owners of the country’s number two daily (O estado de São Paulo), other newspapers and other FM stations as well as a press agency and a television channel in the sate of Maranhão.X [42].
The second largest media group in Brazil, the Abril group owns the largest magazine and periodical publishing company in the country, the Editora Abril which represents 63% of the group’s total income. Editora Abril publishes 373 magazines, and has 43 Internet sites. The group also has two other educational publishing companies (Editoras Ática and Scipione) a video production and distribution company (Abril Video)[+] NoteFinancial report for March 2010. See also Fabiana Rodrigues, GLOBO: CONCENTRADA E INTERNACIONALIZADA in Razon y Palabra, Número 64, 29th April 2010.X [43] a music channel (MTV), a cable operator offering a multi-channel package (TVA) and a partnership with the largest Internet portal in Brazil, UOL. The number of issues of the various magazines published by the Abril group increased by 4.7% in 2009: they include 169 million issues and represent 54.2% of the Brazilian market[+] NoteIVC Instituto Verificador de Circulação 2009.X [44] with 3.7 million subscribers. The group’s financial report for 2009 shows growth of 3.6% compared with 2008, with net profits of 2 billion reais (or 872 million Euros)[+] NoteFinancial report presented in March 2010 X [45]. In 2009, the group published an article in Veja, the most widely distributed magazine, denouncing the monopoly of its main competitor Organizações Globo in the market of pay channel operators, drawing attention to the threat posed by the group’s control - as owner of the largest national channel - on the right of access to different sources of information[+] NoteSource: Portal da Imprensa, on 15/06/2009 X [46].

 


 
The Universal Church of the Kingdom of God and its founder Edir Macedo owns the second largest terrestrial channel in the country (TV Record) and other more modest stations such as Rede Mulher and Rede Família. Rede Record had a 15.7% audience share in 2008[+] NoteMidia dados 2009.X [47] and declared for 2009 that it had a revenue of 2.25 billion reais (or 981 million Euros), which represents a growth rate of 20% compared with the income in 2008. The channel was created in 1953 by Paulo Machado and first of all belonged to the Abravanel family before being sold in 1989 to the controversial founder[+] NoteAccording to the Globo channel, the newspaper O Globo and Folha de São Paulo, Edir Macedo and other members of the Universal Church are currently being investigated for money laundering and organised gang crime: the money of the church members is said to have been used to pay for various companies such as Rede Record and Radio Record. The only response the Record channel could come up with was to broadcast criticism of the policy of the Organizaçoes Globo group with a reminder of the link with the dictatorship, its political influence, the protests from the people against the channel during the elections of 1989 and excerpts from a documentary by Simon Hartog created in 1993, Muito alem citadão kane, which told the sorry story of the political links and the influence of TV Globo. Rede Record also accuses the public ministry of providing the Globo group with confidential information currently being investigated. See videos.X [48] of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God. It is now the main competitor of TV Globo. Confrontations and provocative statements flew between the two groups, and their respective channels are frequently reported in the media[+] NoteBy way of example, in its newspaper in September 2009, Folha Universal, the Record group denounces the politics taking place behind closed doors regarding the construction of Projac (Globo studios of telenovelas) which aroused controversy and led in 2009 to Globo Organizaçoes answering to a Parliamentary Inquiry Commission (CPI) on the matter of a loan of 38 million reais at incredibly low interest rates from the State coffers (Caixa Econômica Federal) under the presidency of José Sarney .X [49]. The channel became more international with Rede Record International in 2000 and when it started up its portal http://rederecord.r7.com/ in 2010.
Rede Record has also started to export telenovelas. But the international market for telenovelas has changed[+] NoteSee the audience rating successes abroad between the 1970s and the end of the 1990sX [50]. At the end of the 1970s, the genre had little competition on the global market. During these years, telenovelas such as Gabriela or Escrava Isaura had an astounding success in Portugal, first of all, and secondly in China[+] NoteSee Erika THOMAS, op.cit.X [51]. The enthusiastic reception by the public set the objectives for a renewal of audiovisual production in the country. Brazilian telenovelas set the scene for the appearance of local productions abroad that are now in competition with them[+] NoteThe audience figures for Brazilian telenovelas in Portugal went from a 35% market share to in the 1970s to around 10% today. SourceX [52]. Today, the global public for these productions is estimated to be two billion viewers and around 500 telenovelas are produced and broadcast throughout the world. What is more, other large Latin American channels have entered the telenovelas market with cheaper, less elaborate productions. This is the case for instance for Televisa, in Mexico, or Venevisión and RCTV in Venezuela, Telefe and Artear, in Argentina, and Caracol and RCN in Columbia.

 
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Organizações Globo: a political organisation?

The links between the Globo group and the political life of the country have been looked at in a range of university and academic papers[+] NoteSee in particular: Daniel Herz , A história secreta da Rede Globo Tchê, Porto Alegre, 1987, which is the 14th issue and which inspired the British documentary which is still not allowed to be broadcast on Brazilian channels Beyond Citizen Kane (Muito alem do Cidadão Kane) by Simon Hartog in 1993. Another more recent work covers and takes a broader look at the issue of links between the group and the dictatorship: Aloysio Castelo de Carvalho, Rede da Democracia: “O Globo”, “O Jornal” e o “Jornal do Brasil” na queda do governo Goulart (1961-64), Nitpress e Editora UFF, Rio de Janeiro, 2010. X [53]. During this election year in Brazil[+] NoteThe presidential elections will take place on 3rd October 2010. X [54], TV Globo has been once more accused of campaigning for its candidate[+] NoteAccording to the media specialist Laurindo Leal Filho, Globo and also the dailies Folha de São Paulo and Estado de São Paulo are clearly campaigning for the opposition candidate, José Serra.X [55]. Marcelo Branco, one of the coordinators of the web campaign for the candidate of the Labour Party, Dilma Rousseff, accused Globo of echoing the presidential slogan for the opposition candidate, José Serra (PSDB[+] NotePartido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Social Democrat Party of Brazil)X [56]) which states that “Brazil can do more[+] Note“O Brasil pode mais”X [57]”. On 18th April 2010, on its Sunday programme Fantástico, the channel that is celebrating its 45th anniversary, used jingles and its actors to say: “We want more. More education, health, love and peace. Brazil? Much more[+] Note“Todos queremos mais. Educação, saúde e, claro, amor e paz. Brasil? Muito mais”X [58]”. Faced with protests from a number of Internet users[+] NoteJosé Leite Pereira, Jornal de Noticias of 25th April 2010X [59] and to play down the controversy, TV Globo decided to remove its commemorative jingles[+] NoteVeja.com, 19th April 2010 X [60] stating that the jingle had already been thought up back in 2009[+] NoteStatement cast into doubt by some journalists. X [61], but that the channel was not offering an excuse for its being accused of being biased[+] NoteCentral Globo de Comunicaçoes, 18/04/2010X [62]. See video 45 years of Globo and the José Serra campaign:
Is TV Globo biased? The story of the creation of the channel that federates the Organizações Globo group, and the various controversies that occurred during the election campaign appear to have permanently harmed the image of TV Globo. One just has to remember that the rapid climb of the channel is based on three essential facts: an illegal financial agreement, close collaboration with the military regime (1964-1985) and favourable audiovisual circumstances with the disappearance of two competing channels, Tupi and Excelsior[+] NoteThe only channel to criticize the coup d’état, Excelsior, lost its concession to broadcast in 1970 and Tupi in 1980. X [63].
Ignoring article 160 of the constitution of 1946 which forbade foreign investment in communication companies, the Globo group received 6 million dollars in 1962 from the American group Time Life to create the channel. At the time the “communist threat” was an often repeated political argument and Time Life, in connection with the Republican Party made sure that solid anti-communist foundations were laid in Brazil[+] NoteDaniel Herz op.cit.X [64]. Besides a breach of the constitution, which was subject to a parliamentary enquiry in 1967 which came to nothing, this American investment consolidated the dictatorship in Brazil with the backing of the CIA[+] NoteRoméro da Costa Machado, Afundação Roberto Marinho, Tchê, Porto Alegre, 1988.X [65]. Globo’s collaboration with the military regime – for which the channel was the mouthpiece – is also edifying: political analysis disappeared, while economic analysis boasted about “Great Brazil” and the economic miracle. Since 1968, the dictatorship had been becoming increasingly radical, with the Institutional Act n°5 that confiscated citizens’ basic rights, and in 1972 the president Emílio Garrastazu Médici stated, during the inauguration of colour television, that he felt happy each evening when he was watching the news on Globo, “because the world is in chaos, but Brazil is enjoying peace[+] Note"Sinto-me feliz todas as noites quando assisto ao noticiário. Porque, no noticiário da TV Globo, o mundo está um caos, mas o Brasil está em paz". See: Caio Navarro de Toledo “o culto ao novo heroi e os novos simbolismos” in Revista Espaço Academico, n°28, sept. 2003: X [66]”.
In 1982, the Brazilian public discovered the shameful face of the channel when Rede Globo attempted to prevent Leonel Brizola (PDT[+] NotePartido Democratico Trabalhista (Democratic Workers’ PartyX [67]), the opponent of the candidate for the dictatorship party, from winning the position as governor of Rio by misinforming the viewers, conveying the message that electoral fraud had been attempted[+] NoteThis affair was called the Proconsult Affair (Caso Proconsult): an electronic vote counting system attributed void and blank votes to the candidate of the PDS (previous Arena party of the dictatorship) and opponent of Brizola. TV Globo presented the results of the vote-count, giving more weight to the votes for the opponent by trying the cancel out the difference between the candidates. See the following about this here. X [68]. Ten years later, Brizola managed, on 25th March 1994 to reply to the channel that had repeatedly cast doubt on his credibility throughout his mandate as governor: “Everything about Globo is biased and based on manipulation[+] Note“Tudo na Globo é tendencioso e manipulado” see video linkX [69]” he said in a speech read on the air by the channel’s journalist, Cid Moreira[+] Note Folha de São Paulo 7/8/2003 cited hereX [70] (see video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVln407XqH4&feature=related)
In 1984, while popular demonstrations were being held everywhere in the country to demand universal suffrage for the presidential elections (Diretas Já), Rede Globo completely ignored the event and decided not to cover it. In the streets, the people were shouting: “the people are not stupid, down with TV Globo![+] Note“Abaixo a rede globo, o povo nao é bobo”X [71]” Globo supported the candidacy of Tancredo Neves (PMDB) who was elected but who died before taking up office. The vice-president, José Sarney, then became president and tended to his links with the group by accepting the proposition of Globo as telecommunications minister: Antonio Carlos Magalhães. In 1989, during a televised debate between the presidential candidates, Collor and Lula, the favourable treatment shown to Collor in a propagandist summing up put forward by the channel clearly showed that he was the group’s candidate[+] NoteTwo debates were organised. During the first one, Lula made a good impression. The second one was organised three days before the election. The latter was broadcast after the event, after being edited and summarised in 6 minutes by Globo and obtained a 64% audience share. During the summary presented by the channel, Collor was allocated one minute and twelve seconds more talking time than his opponent. At the end of the debate, the journalist showed the results of an opinion poll which was favourable for Collor. See the following link on this subject. X [72]. During the same year, in the issue of 19th June, the Jornal do Brasil stated clearly: “TV Globo is the largest political party in Brazil and should be recorded as PRG: Parti Rede Globo[+] Note“a TV globo é o maior partido político do Brasil e deveria pedir seu registro como PRG – Partido da Rede Globo”X [73]”. From 1992, while the whole of Brazil was calling for the destitution of Collor for corruption, the Globo group, which at first tried to hide the facts about the corruption the president was being accused of, finally let the matter drop. The vice-president Itamar Franco took on the presidency until new elections could be held. In 1994 and 1998, the Globo group clearly gave its support to Fernando Henrique Cardoso, the new opponent of Lula. The current president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, an adversary of the channel for many years[+] NoteSee his interview in the documentary Beyond Citizen Kane (Hartog, 1993)X [74], declared three days of national mourning following the death of Roberto Marinho, the founder of the Globo channel, and expressed his great sadness at the loss of this man “who spent his life believing in Brazil”[+] NoteFolha on line 6/8/2003X [75].
The documentary Beyond Citizen Kane (Muito Além do cidadão Kane) by Simon Harto (1993) the distribution rights of which were bought by Rede Record in 2009[+] NoteSee the following link on this matterX [76], showed through various accounts, including by personalities such as Chico Buarque de Holanda and Lula, the links between the group and politics. This documentary that was shown widely in Brazilian universities can be seen, despite the poor quality of the images on the Internet, in four parts:

 
Part 1
Part 2


Part 3

Part 4
Back to summary

Conclusion: a media conglomerate that casts doubt on democracy


Rede Globo is anintegral part of the national political and social scene that it helps to create by covering 98.44% of the country, or 99.50% of the population of Brazil. With its 2,500 hours of telenovelas per year and over 1,800 of television journalism, Rede Globo is the largest audiovisual company in terms of employment for artists, authors, actors, scriptwriters, journalists, producers and technicians. Its content and formats are innovative, and its aesthetic influence has gone far beyond Brazil’s borders and has given the impetus for new forms of local production. The Globo group has reacted quickly to technological changes which bring about new methods of multimedia consumption, thereby keeping its place as leader.
 
However, although the Globo group embodied an all-powerful media organisation up to the middle of the 1980s, the following decades gave rise to economic and social realities which have somewhat compromised the room for manoeuvre that the group had previously enjoyed[+] NoteBy way of example, Globo requested an audience with the federal government of Sao Paolo in 2007 to try to prevent the inauguration of the information channel of its competitor RecordNews by referring to irregularities. Despite obtaining an audience with the communications and various complaints minister, the president Lula inaugurated RecordNews. Seelink. X [77]. The devaluation of the Brazilian currency starting in the early 2000s meant that the group’s growth stagnated, and its debt grew. The debt was rebalanced[+] NoteIn 2001, the group suffered a deficit of 550 million dollars, and in 2002 the financial report of Organizaçoes Globo showed a debt of 2.63 billion dollars. From 2003, the debt was renegotiated with American investment funds. Source: Sergio Denicoli dos Santos A TV Globo e os fluxos de comunicação, Universidade Federal de Fluminense, 2005, Biblioteca on line: article viewable link. X [78] partly thanks to an amendment allowing Brazilian media companies to accept foreign capital investment[+] NoteConstitutional amendment n°36/2002 -222 so that 30% of capital invested may be foreign. See the law textX [79]. The fall in audience figures of Rede Globo is another issue that is worrying the group which, officially, plays down the results of audience surveys by pointing out that TV Globo obtains average annual scores that are the highest in Brazilian television against a backdrop of a general fall in audience figures for terrestrial channels. However, this relative loss of interest by the public for Globo programmes that made the channel a success is correlated with a questioning, or even a worsening of the image of the channel in the eyes of the public. This worsened image of Globo, greatly encouraged by the competition, shows through via social movements[+] NoteSee for example National Forum for the Democratisation of Communication (FNDC)X [80] that attract the attention of civil society. The largest media conglomerate in Brazil has of course got political influence, but the issue at hand is the social influence that the Globo groupexerts, and in broader terms the need for limits to the level of concentration of media power within a democracy.
 
For years, people in Brazil and elsewhere have been alerting the public authorities to the dangers of a concentration of media companies[+] NoteAs in Europe and the United States. See link. X [81] that prevent access to a broad range of sources and points of view. The level of media concentration held by a few influential groups that have in the end the same objectives, even the same ideological view of the world, brings about a homogenisation of the media that compromises the democratic process which can only really take place if there is a stricter legal framework for media concentration that pays more heed to pluralism, diversity and the choices given to consumers. Internet is of course an alternative and an instrument that broadens access to information, but it should be pointed out that in Brazil this means of information and communication is accessed by 34.8%[+] NoteSource: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2008 data. X [82] of the population.
 
Organizaçoes Globo
 
 
Comunicações Globo e Participações S.A.
 
 
 
 
 
Founded on 29th June 1925
 
Founder:
 
Irineu Marinho
President:
 
Irineu Roberto Marinho
Vice-president:
 
João Roberto Marinho
EBIT (profit before interest and tax) :
 
647 million Euros (1.527 billion reais)
 
2009 income:
3.555 billion Euros (8.386 billion reais)
 
 


En bref et en chiffres 












Back to summary

References

Sérgio,CAPARELLI, Venício. LIMA, Comunicação e televisão: desafios da pós-globalização. São Paulo: Hacker, 2004.
 
André Piero GATTI,. Distribuição e Exibição na Indústria Cinematográfica Brasileira (1993-2003). Doctorat - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 2005.  
 
GODOI, Guilherme Canela de Souza. Comunicações no Brasil: complexidade, regulação e conexões com a democracia. Brasília, Rio de Janeiro: 2004.
 
Wilson GOMES, “Propaganda política, ética e democracia”. In H. MATOS (Org.), Mídia, eleições e democracia, São Paulo: Scritta, 1994.
 
Venício A. de. LIMA, Mídia: Crise política e poder no Brasil. São Paulo: Editora Fundação Perseu Abramo, 2006.
 
Silvia BORELLI, Gabriel PRIOLLI et Eliana MALTA (orgs.) A deusa ferida. Por que a Rede Globo não é mais a campeã absoluta de audiência, São Paulo: Summus, 2000.

Guilherme Jorge REZENDE, Telejornalismo no Brasil, um perfil editorial. São Paulo: Summus, 2000.
 
Erika THOMAS, Les telenovelas entre fiction et réalité, Paris, L'Harmattan, coll. Audiovisuels et Communication, 2003.
 
Erika THOMAS, « Voyage au pays des ancêtres, les telenovelas brésiliennes au Portugal » in Les médias en Europe, influences interculturelles, Temps des Médias, Revue d’Histoire n°11, édition SPHM, 2009.
 
Nuno COIMBRA MESQUITA Mídia e democracia no Brasil: Jornal Nacional, crise política e confiançanas instituições, Thèse de doctorat, USP 2008.
 
Eliane REGINA MUNHÓZ A rede Globo de televisão no território brasileiro através do sistema de emissoras afiliadas, Memoire de recherche, USP 2009.

Articles et recherches en ligne:

Valério Cruz BRITTOS, César Ricardo SIQUEIRA BOLAÑO (Orgs.) Rede Globo: 40 anos de poder e hegemonia. São Paulo: Paulus, 2005. 
 
Fracisco Claudio CORREA MEYER SANT’ANNA, Media de source, un nouvel acteur sur la scène journalistique brésilienne, Thèse de doctorat Rennes 1, 2007.  
 
conglomerados de comunicação no Brasil, Mémoire de recherche, Brasilia, 2009.
 
 
Fabiana RODRIGUES, Globo : concentrada e internacionalizada in Razon y Palabra, 15 avril 2010, ISSN 1605 4806.
 
Rogério CHRISTOFOLETTI, “Dez impasses para uma efetiva crítica de mídia no Brasil” in Sala de prensa, n°63, janvier 2004, année V, vol.2.
Back to summary
  • 1. With Televisa (Mexico) Cisneros (Venezuela), and Clarín (Argentina).
  • 2. Roberto Irineu, José Roberto and João Roberto Marinho.
  • 3. Number one private channel in Brazil via satellite and the DTH (Direct to Home) digital system
  • 4. The largest multi-service telecommunication company via cable in Latin America.
  • 5. James Gorgen, Sistema Central de Mídia: proposta de um modelo sobre os conglomerados de comunicação no Brasil, Masters dissertation, Universidade Federal, Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 2009.
  • 6. which owns four of the five monthly magazines with the top sales figures in the country.
  • 7. Sempre Editora, a popular low-price tabloid newspaper.
  • 8. Source IVC 2009
  • 9. Five million newspapers are bought daily in Brazil.
  • 10. By way of example, various televised short-format series may be cited (Os Normais, A grande familia, Casseta e Planeta) which are turned into full-length films by public demand, just like some mini-series (O Auto da Compadecida)
  • 11. For the data considered, see BUTCHER, Pedro. A Dona da História: origens da Globo Filmes e seu impacto no audiovisual brasileiro. Masters dissertations, Universidade Federal do Rio deJaneiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2006. Lucas BUENO MAIA, Produção, distribuição e exibição – cinema brasileiro da retomada (1995-2005), Research Thesis, Universidade Federal Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, 2008.
  • 12. Idem.
  • 13. The audience rating figures are more difficult to obtain as most of the ratings are by audience/city.
  • 14. Source: Ibope September 2009 cited: Analise Comunicação Rio de Janeiro
  • 15. Source and detailed information can be viewed on-line
  • 16. In the 2001 report, the Organizações state their media mission: “Create, produce, and distribute quality content to inform, educate and entertain while building up relationships which improve the lives of individuals and communities “, while paying homage to the Roberto Marinho Foundation created in 1977 as a non-profit body to develop educational and social projects.
  • 17. See article by Fabiana Rodrigues “Globo: concentrada e internacionalizada” in Razon y Palabra, 15th April 2010, ISSN 1605 4806.
  • 18. Ruth Viana, annotation: “O globo, Jornal Nacional” Revista Jornalismo Brasileiro
  • 19. Contraction of "Projeto Jacarepaguá", see article in French
  • 20. Source : Memoria Globo
  • 21. Memoria Globo
  • 22. See Erika THOMAS, "Voyage au pays des ancêtres, les telenovelas brésiliennes au Portugal" [Journey to the country of our ancestors, Brazilian telenovelas in Portugal] (2009) in Les médias en Europe, influences interculturelles, [The media in Europe, intercultural influences] Temps des Médias, Revue d’Histoire n°11, SPHM issue.
  • 23. Daniel Herz, A historia secreta da rede globo, Tché Porto Alegre, 1987.
  • 24. Published since 2001 by Infoglobo.
  • 25. Microwave Multipoint Distribution System.
  • 26. Direct to Home (broadcast via satellite).
  • 27. James Gorgen, Sistema Central de Mídia: proposta de um modelo sobre os conglomerados de comunicação no Brasis.
  • 28. It should be noted that, as stated by Gorgen (op.cit), that the conglomerate has been restricting access to its figures to investors, so that even the government body, the Commission des Valeurs Mobilières (CVM) in charge of presenting the financial statements of various Brazilian companies no longer contains financial data on the media conglomerate Organizaçoes Globo. Consequently, the only data accessible is that provided by the conglomerate itself.
  • 29. Source: Midia dados Brasil 2009.
  • 30. Data from the Projeto Inter-Meios calculating the advertising investment in Brazilian media in 2010.
  • 31. Jornal O Estado de Sao Paulo, Sem Intervalo, 25th March 2010, quoted in Abril.com
  • 32. Source: Rede Globo veicula mais de 16 milhões de comerciais por ano, interview with the commercial manager of Globo, Wlly Haas, 19/04/2009.
  • 33. Financial report for March 2010.
  • 34. *Telenovelas broadcast between 2000 and 2008: 16 telenovelas at 6 p.m. (Esplendor (2000): 27.6%; O cravo e a rosa (2000 :2001): 30.6%; Estrela guia (2001): 30.9%; A padroeira (2001/2002): 26%; Coração de estudante (2002): 29.9%; Sabor da paixão (2002/2003): 24%; Agora é que são elas (2003): 28.4%; Chocolate com pimenta (2003/2004): 35.3%; Cabocla (2004): 34.6%; Como uma onda (2004/2005): 26.8%; Alma gemea (2005/2006): 38.6%; Sinha Moça (2006): 33.1%; O profeta (2006/2007) 31.8%; Eterna Magia (2007): 25.9%; Desejo proibido (2007/2008): 23.4%; Ciranda de Pedra (2008): 21.6%); 15 telenovelas at 7 p.m. (Uga Uga (2000 :2001) : 37.9%; Um anjo caiu do ceu (2001): 33.6%; As filhas da mae (2001/2002): 27.8%; Desejos de mulher (2002): 32.6%; O beijo do vampiro (2002/2003): 28.2; Kubanacan (2003/2004): 34.5%; Da cor do pecado (2004): 43.1% Começar denovo (2004/2005): 31%; A lua me disse(2005): 32.4%; Bang Bang (2005/2006): 27.2%; Cobras e lagartos (2006): 38.2%; Pé ne jaca (2006/2007) 29.5%; Sete pecados (2007/2008): 29.6%; Beleza Pura (2008): 27.7,6%; Três Irmas (launch) 2008: 33%); 13 telenovelas at 9 p.m. (Laços de familia (2000 :2001) : 44.9%; Porto dos milagres (2001): 44.6%; O clone (2001/2002): 47%; Esperança (2002/2003): 38%; Mulheres apaixonadas (2003): 46,6%; Celebridades (2003/2004): 46% Senhora do destino (2004/2005): 50.4%; America (2005): 49.4; Belissima (2005/2006): 48.5%; Paginas da vida (2006/2007) 46.8%; Paraiso tropical (2007): 42.8%; Duas Caras (2007/2008): 41.1%; A favorita (2008) 37.2%).
  • 35. REZENDE, Guilherme Jorge, Telejornalismo no Brasil, um perfil editorial. São Paulo: Summus, 2000.
  • 36. Ricardo Feltrin, UOL Noticias, 8/12/2009
  • 37. The Globo.com website is in 6th position for Brazilian portals with 21.7 million visitors per month behind Google, MSN, UOL, IG and Terra and 4th if one only takes into account the information portal which is behind UOL, IG and terra. (Source: Ibope 26 /11/2009).
  • 38. Source Midia Dados 2009.
  • 39. Revista Abril, Audiencia das novelas da globo, Renata Pallottini, November 2008.
  • 40. Source Ibope 2009 São Paulo 7/12/2009.
  • 41. The Globo group does not necessarily have a majority presence in all forms of media, but it is nonetheless the most powerful of all the groups, because it is present everywhere (press, radio, television, cinema etc.) to a significant degree. See Rogério Christofoletti on this matter, “Dez impasses para uma efetiva crítica de mídia no Brasil” in Sala de prensa, n°63, January 2004, year V, vol.2.
  • 42. After that there is the Silvio Santos group (the Abravanel family), Les Frias, the Saad group and finally Mesquita. These latter four groups nonetheless have a significant share of media control: the Abravanel group owns the SBT[2] channel; Les Frias own the most read newspaper in the country (Folha de São Paulo) as well as a survey institute (Datafolha), other newspapers, investment in the largest Internet portal in Brazil (UOL), a press agency (Agencia Folha) and, in partnership with Globo, the most influential business newspaper journal in Brazil (Valor Econômico); the Saad group owns the Rede Bandeirantes channel as well as AM and FM radios; Les Mesquita are the owners of the country’s number two daily (O estado de São Paulo), other newspapers and other FM stations as well as a press agency and a television channel in the sate of Maranhão.
  • 43. Financial report for March 2010. See also Fabiana Rodrigues, GLOBO: CONCENTRADA E INTERNACIONALIZADA in Razon y Palabra, Número 64, 29th April 2010.
  • 44. IVC Instituto Verificador de Circulação 2009.
  • 45. Financial report presented in March 2010
  • 46. Source: Portal da Imprensa, on 15/06/2009
  • 47. Midia dados 2009.
  • 48. According to the Globo channel, the newspaper O Globo and Folha de São Paulo, Edir Macedo and other members of the Universal Church are currently being investigated for money laundering and organised gang crime: the money of the church members is said to have been used to pay for various companies such as Rede Record and Radio Record. The only response the Record channel could come up with was to broadcast criticism of the policy of the Organizaçoes Globo group with a reminder of the link with the dictatorship, its political influence, the protests from the people against the channel during the elections of 1989 and excerpts from a documentary by Simon Hartog created in 1993, Muito alem citadão kane, which told the sorry story of the political links and the influence of TV Globo. Rede Record also accuses the public ministry of providing the Globo group with confidential information currently being investigated. See videos.
  • 49. By way of example, in its newspaper in September 2009, Folha Universal, the Record group denounces the politics taking place behind closed doors regarding the construction of Projac (Globo studios of telenovelas) which aroused controversy and led in 2009 to Globo Organizaçoes answering to a Parliamentary Inquiry Commission (CPI) on the matter of a loan of 38 million reais at incredibly low interest rates from the State coffers (Caixa Econômica Federal) under the presidency of José Sarney .
  • 50. See the audience rating successes abroad between the 1970s and the end of the 1990s
  • 51. See Erika THOMAS, op.cit.
  • 52. The audience figures for Brazilian telenovelas in Portugal went from a 35% market share to in the 1970s to around 10% today. Source
  • 53. See in particular: Daniel Herz , A história secreta da Rede Globo Tchê, Porto Alegre, 1987, which is the 14th issue and which inspired the British documentary which is still not allowed to be broadcast on Brazilian channels Beyond Citizen Kane (Muito alem do Cidadão Kane) by Simon Hartog in 1993. Another more recent work covers and takes a broader look at the issue of links between the group and the dictatorship: Aloysio Castelo de Carvalho, Rede da Democracia: “O Globo”, “O Jornal” e o “Jornal do Brasil” na queda do governo Goulart (1961-64), Nitpress e Editora UFF, Rio de Janeiro, 2010.
  • 54. The presidential elections will take place on 3rd October 2010.
  • 55. According to the media specialist Laurindo Leal Filho, Globo and also the dailies Folha de São Paulo and Estado de São Paulo are clearly campaigning for the opposition candidate, José Serra.
  • 56. Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Social Democrat Party of Brazil)
  • 57. “O Brasil pode mais”
  • 58. “Todos queremos mais. Educação, saúde e, claro, amor e paz. Brasil? Muito mais”
  • 59. José Leite Pereira, Jornal de Noticias of 25th April 2010
  • 60. Veja.com, 19th April 2010
  • 61. Statement cast into doubt by some journalists.
  • 62. Central Globo de Comunicaçoes, 18/04/2010
  • 63. The only channel to criticize the coup d’état, Excelsior, lost its concession to broadcast in 1970 and Tupi in 1980.
  • 64. Daniel Herz op.cit.
  • 65. Roméro da Costa Machado, Afundação Roberto Marinho, Tchê, Porto Alegre, 1988.
  • 66. "Sinto-me feliz todas as noites quando assisto ao noticiário. Porque, no noticiário da TV Globo, o mundo está um caos, mas o Brasil está em paz". See: Caio Navarro de Toledo “o culto ao novo heroi e os novos simbolismos” in Revista Espaço Academico, n°28, sept. 2003:
  • 67. Partido Democratico Trabalhista (Democratic Workers’ Party
  • 68. This affair was called the Proconsult Affair (Caso Proconsult): an electronic vote counting system attributed void and blank votes to the candidate of the PDS (previous Arena party of the dictatorship) and opponent of Brizola. TV Globo presented the results of the vote-count, giving more weight to the votes for the opponent by trying the cancel out the difference between the candidates. See the following about this here.
  • 69. “Tudo na Globo é tendencioso e manipulado” see video link
  • 70. Folha de São Paulo 7/8/2003 cited here
  • 71. “Abaixo a rede globo, o povo nao é bobo”
  • 72. Two debates were organised. During the first one, Lula made a good impression. The second one was organised three days before the election. The latter was broadcast after the event, after being edited and summarised in 6 minutes by Globo and obtained a 64% audience share. During the summary presented by the channel, Collor was allocated one minute and twelve seconds more talking time than his opponent. At the end of the debate, the journalist showed the results of an opinion poll which was favourable for Collor. See the following link on this subject.
  • 73. “a TV globo é o maior partido político do Brasil e deveria pedir seu registro como PRG – Partido da Rede Globo”
  • 74. See his interview in the documentary Beyond Citizen Kane (Hartog, 1993)
  • 75. Folha on line 6/8/2003
  • 76. See the following link on this matter
  • 77. By way of example, Globo requested an audience with the federal government of Sao Paolo in 2007 to try to prevent the inauguration of the information channel of its competitor RecordNews by referring to irregularities. Despite obtaining an audience with the communications and various complaints minister, the president Lula inaugurated RecordNews. Seelink.
  • 78. In 2001, the group suffered a deficit of 550 million dollars, and in 2002 the financial report of Organizaçoes Globo showed a debt of 2.63 billion dollars. From 2003, the debt was renegotiated with American investment funds. Source: Sergio Denicoli dos Santos A TV Globo e os fluxos de comunicação, Universidade Federal de Fluminense, 2005, Biblioteca on line: article viewable link.
  • 79. Constitutional amendment n°36/2002 -222 so that 30% of capital invested may be foreign. See the law text
  • 80. See for example National Forum for the Democratisation of Communication (FNDC)
  • 81. As in Europe and the United States. See link.
  • 82. Source: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2008 data.
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