Cinema in Africa: a clean start and renewal?

Article  by  Pierre BARROT  •  Published 08.07.2011  •  Updated 12.07.2011
Group of people watching a movie
Except for Egypt and South Africa, the film industry has hit rock bottom in Africa; but the revival announced by multiscreen cinemas and the making of a few daring films could well do African films some good.

Summary

Films are attracting almost no public apart from during festival time. Cinemas are closing one after the other... This is the clinical picture of the cinema in most African countries, and indeed has been for ten, twenty or thirty years depending on the case in question. Some, like Nigeria, hit the bottom in the 1990s. Others are just getting there now, as is the case in some French-speaking African countries where there is not one single cinema left. In Dakar, the “Paris”, the last first-run house closed shortly after 2000. The two remaining cinemas in Cameroun closed in 2009. In Cotonou, the cinema “Le Bénin” collapsed, was taken over by the government, and sold at the symbolic price of one Franc to a foundation that is working to turn it into a museum of African art. The Republic of Central Africa, The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Congo-Brazzaville have no cinemas left. There are still some small multiscreen cinemas languishing in Bamako and Libreville, but the owners are finding it hard to get hold of films. French distributors stopped supplying films way back, and obtaining American films is getting difficult too. There is no longer what could be really called a network, and copies of films of no longer in circulation.

Cinema in French-speaking Africa completely destroyed

Video, film piracy and the run-down facilities have led to cinemas almost completely disappearing in French-speaking Africa. What can be done to build back up a network of cinemas? No outside investors appear interested in this part of the world[+] NoteEconomically, the French-speaking and English-speaking zones of Africa are often compared. Former British colonies are often highly populous countries whose development has been built on a larger population and internal market: 38 million inhabitants in Kenya, 48 million in South Africa, almost 150 million in Nigeria. In the French-speaking zone, only the Democratic Republic of Congo, with its 70 million inhabitants, has such similar advantages, but the country suffers from the greed of its leaders and a devastating civil war, and is among the poorest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita. Wherever you go, the market is more active and has a more business-like attitude in English-speaking Africa. That said, in the cultural field, the French-speaking part of the continent has for a long time been more dynamic thanks to a cultural policy and international aid that support creativity. This is why African cinema had been more or less dominated by French-speakers until the year 2000.X [1], an area that has been ravaged and where the economic life-blood, Ivory Coast and the Democratic Republic of Congo are prey to civil war and have been in disarray for over ten years. At the 2009 Cannes Film Festival, the Mauritanian Abderrahmane Sissako and the French actress Juliette Binoche didn’t wait to start handing around the begging bowl. Their association “Des cinémas pour l'Afrique” [Cinemas for Africa] offers a sponsorship system: buy (for € 5,000) a used cinema seat from the old cinema “Soudan ciné” in Bamako to contribute towards its renovation work. Four hundred and twenty seats have been sold and it is planned to reopen the cinema in 2012; but this act of resistance doesn’t solve any of the problems which led to the disappearance of cinema in French-speaking Africa: obsolete old, town-centre cinemas that are too big, not suitable for new urban life-styles, and located in areas that have become too expensive and where the cinema business is no longer able to make a profit.
Back to summary

The failure of the Africa Cinémas programme

Starting in 2003, the main backers of African cinema (France, European Union and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie) met to launch “Africa cinémas”, a stimulus programme that aimed to bring the public back to sub-Saharan African cinema, primarily through renovating the cinema buildings. The aim, however, was merely to make something new out of old materials. The intention was to just overhaul the projection rooms and replace the seats. There was no hope of a new cinema coming into being through Africa cinémas. In 2004, the programme director, Toussaint Tiendrebeogo, started to get worried about how unrealistic the aims that had been set by the backers actually were: “In French-speaking African countries, Africa cinémas cannot count on more than twenty cinemas, since those in the Ivory Coast cannot be counted because of the current political crisis. (...) Is it really possible to reach the targets set (...) while only being able to rely on such small numbers?” It soon became clear that the cinemas were in too bad a state for a rescue plan to be effective. At a meeting held in 2007 to assess the success of the 2007 programme, one of the participants cited the case of a cinema in Senegal “that had never had the time to use the seats and the projectors that had been bought because [it] was sold off to a Baptist church”. The reality is that despite international aid, French-speaking Africa has gone through the same process as in Nigeria where the cinemas started to become so run down in the 1980s that nearly all cinemas closed down by the 1990s.
Back to summary

Impetus from South Africa

Just as the Africa cinemas programme was fading away, the multiplex cinema revolution that saved the cinema industry in developed countries had not yet begun in Africa. Or, in fact it had; but it had succeeded in only one country: South Africa. This country alone has 734 modern screens[+] Note2008 figure provided by the National film and video foundation. Of these 734 screens, only four are in cinemas with only one screen. 40 % of cinemas in South Africa are complexes with eight screens and more. In this country, by law, any new shopping mall of a certain size has to include a multiplex cinema.X [2] which bring in almost 30 million cinema-goers, with box-office figures exceeding the whole of the rest of the continent, including Egypt. For a while, it was thought that the South African giant was going to spread its know-how to the rest of Africa. The Nu Metro group, number two on the South African market[+] NoteNu Metro is one of the brands of the Avusa group (ex Johnnic) that operates eighty cinema complexes with a total of 196 screens in South Africa.X [3], is both distributor and cinema operator (after Ster-Kinekor). It set up first of all in Southern Africa, then in East Africa, before getting a foothold in 2004 in West Africa[+] NoteIn 2006, the representative of Nu Metro in Nigeria even planned to put forward an offer to take over the cinema “Le Burkina” in Ouagadougou, a French-speaking bastion and real historical safe haven of African cinema.X [4]. But, after that, Nu Metro back-tracked. Its joint-venture project with the Silverbird group for the opening of the first cinema complex in Nigeria came to a sudden end. The South African operator nonetheless opened its own cinemas in Lagos and Abuja, but sold them shortly after to Silverbird and to another Nigerian group called Genesis. Nu Metro also pulled out of Ghana before selling its 18 screens in Kenya in 2008 to the Nigerian giant Silverbird, which continued to expand, opening up new multiplexes in Ghana and Zambia. There are now a few dozen modern cinema complexes in English-speaking Africa, not counting South Africa. The real multiplexes, with eight screens and above, can be counted on the fingers of one hand, but the increasing number of new cinema complexes has opened the door for new distribution networks. It is primarily Hollywood products that gain, but African films can also benefit.
Back to summary

Multiplexes for the elite only

The first complex in Nigeria which opened in 2004 is an American-style cinema. It has five screens and is located right inside a shopping centre; it rakes in more profit from the sale of popcorn and fizzy drinks than from the films (almost only Hollywood blockbusters), which serve sometimes as loss leaders. The price of seats during the first year of business was very high (as much as 2,000 nairas, ie over € 10). Only a well-to-do clientele could afford to go to the cinema, while most people had to make do with the local home video industry with its thousands of low-cost mediocre films. For the first few years, only a few Nigerian films showed up on cinema screens where they were shown using a projector. The public hardly rushed to see them, preferring to wait for the video launch that was bound to follow. In 2006, however, the film The Amazing Grace came out, the first Nigerian 35 mm film that had been shot since 1992. Nu Metro, as distributor, planned to distribute this film on the whole of its network in West and East Africa. For the first time in a long time, a proper distribution contract had been signed for an African film with a guaranteed minimum of $ 75,000. The film did not keep all its promises but, according to the website modernghana.com, it attracted 25,000 viewers in Nigeria. After that, a few films that were among the best video productions from “Nollywood” enjoyed respectable admission figures[+] NoteThis was the case for De Kunle Afolayan by Stephanie Okereke, and two other films by Jeta Amata (the author of The Amazing Grace), Inale and Black Gold.X [5].[6] It was not until 2010 however that the public finally got to see a Nigerian film rival a Hollywood blockbuster. The film Ije (The Journey), directed by a young Nigerian woman[+] NoteChineze Anyaene is the first pupil at her school to have shot a full-length film while studying. On her Facebook page, we can read this quote by Winston Churchill: “Success is the ability to go from one failure to another with no loss of enthusiasm”.X [7], a student of the New York Film School of Los Angeles, achieved the record figure of € 230,000 in takings in less than three months (only Avatar beat this). Whilst the films continued to be distributed in Nigeria, the film was shown in Ghana, then in East Africa. This example shows that the network of multiplexes, even though restricted to a privileged clientele – as is the case in Nigeria – can be beneficial to the local film-making industry. We can then imagine a secondary network of small local cinemas popping up where films that have already recouped the investment during the first exclusive showing can be seen.
Back to summary

Maghreb: “megaplexes” fighting against declining viewing figures

The multiplex revolution taking place in sub-Saharan Africa has its epicentre in Nigeria; for the Maghreb, this role has been taken on by Morocco. In this country, over half of operating income now comes from two multiplexes, one that opened in 2002 in Casablanca (14 screens) and the other in 2007 in Marrakech (9 screens). Both belong to the Megarama group that runs around sixty cinemas in France and plans to open up two new multiplexes in Rabat and Tangiers. The director of Megarama also plans to open up a cinema in Algeria, but in this country where the economy is planned, foreign investors have to work through a veritable assault course. Algeria had 424 cinemas when it gained independence, but this figure has fallen to around thirty today, and less than half of those are actually running, in often disastrous conditions. Tunisia used to have around a hundred cinemas in 1960, but there are now only sixty left. Many of them are kept afloat with public subsidy and only operated for part of the year.
 
The example of Morocco appears to suggest that only multiplexes can give a boost to cinema operations. In this country, viewing figures fell by over 20 % between 2007 and 2009 and the trend appears to be continuing in 2010. The public are turning away primarily from single-screen, run-down cinemas that are becoming less and less capable of meeting demand. These cinemas showed a drop of 22 % between 2008 and 2009. Over the same period, mini-complexes of two or three screens resisted this downturn most effectively, with a fall of only 11 %. The viewing figures for the two multiplexes in Morocco have however climbed strongly, and are up 17 %. At the same time, the trend for single-screen cinemas to close, which is both the cause and the consequence of the drop in viewing figures, continues. The number of screens in Morocco went from 95 in 2008 to 77 in 2009 and 70 in 2010.
The cinema-going public appears to be concentrated in the large urban centres, and mainly frequents two multiplexes; but contrary to what one might think, it is not Hollywood productions that are benefiting most. There was a strong increase in the market share for Moroccan films between 2008 and 2009.
 
Morocco: market share according to the geographical origin of the films
 
Country     
2008
2009
United States
38
33.7
Morocco
15.5
27.4
India
26,8
15.4
Egypt
14.6
11.8
France
2.7
3.7
Misc.
2.4
8
Total
100
100
Source: Moroccan Cinema Centre
Back to summary

Is Morocco making films for an African public?

Morocco supports its cinema production through a policy that favours art house films[+] NoteSome have even been exported: 115,426 people went to see Marock by Laïla Marrakchi in France in 2006.X [8]. The market share obtained by these films is an exception in Africa. Only Egypt manages to do better through protectionist methods, and by giving priority to large-studio cinema that targets the public from the whole Arab world. The film industry in South Africa is, for its part, not very prolific (no more than ten to fifteen films per year), but the aim is to attain very high standards in terms of artistic and technical quality, and to distribute their products abroad. In a few years, the country, by acting in this way, has achieved the peak of international recognition: Oscar for the best actress for Charlize Theron, winner of the FESPACO[+] NotePanafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou.X [9] prize for Drum, Oscar for the best foreign film for Tsotsi, the Golden Bear award at the Berlin International Film Festival for U-Karmen Ekayelitsha. This recognition does not stop at festivals. Tsotsi is the film from sub-Saharan Africa that attracted the most cinema-goers in France (323,000) since Yeelen, by Souleymane Cissé (in 1987). Despite these impressive successes, South African cinema only manages a very small market share within its own borders[+] Note15 % in 2005, 2 % in 2006; 10 % over the past eight months of 2010 (source Nfvf.co.za).X [10]. Some producers attach hardly any importance to this, as their main aim is to be recognised internationally. The film-maker Gavin Hood, after the success of Tsotsi, was “snapped up” by Hollywood who entrusted him with directing Inception.
 
Successes of South African cinema
(figures in millions of dollars)
 
Year
Films
Production budget
Takings in the United States
Global takings
2006
Tsotsi (Gavin Hood)
3
2.9
9.8
2007
U-Carmen e-Khayelitsha (Mark Dornford-May)
-
0.49
0.5
2003
Amandla! A Revolution in Four Part Harmony (Lee Hirsch)
-
0.4
0.47
Back to summary

French-speaking Africa: invisible cinema and prizewinning video

Apart from the trio of Egypt-Morocco-South Africa, African film is still largely destined to remain invisible. The Africa cinémas programme’s aim to overhaul cinemas was merely a means to distribute sub-Saharan African films throughout the continent; but this aim is far from having been achieved. Of the seventeen films that received financial aid between 2004 and 2006 to distribute films, none of them exceeded 50,000 viewers and the average was 10,000 viewers only. Worse than that, the pan-African ambition of the programme showed little success: fewer than 10 % of those who went to see the films were outside the country where the film was made. The only film that received aid from the programme that enjoyed popular success, Tasuma, from Burkina Faso, brought in only € 52,000, barely more than the subsidiary it received to help with distribution (€ 36,000, not including the cost of making copies).
Just as the Africa cinémas scheme was bringing to light the financial dead-end suffered by African cinema, new ways of producing and distributing films suddenly popped up without any help through subsidies. In 2004, Boubacar Diallo, publisher and script-writer from Burkina Faso, got involved in producing videos and decided to distribute his own films through the cinemas of Ouagadougou. The projection rooms were only equipped for 35 mm reels, so he provided his own projection equipment; and the success was instantaneous: 28,000 tickets were sold in 2004 for Traque à Ouaga, then 45,000 tickets for Sofia, both very low budget films that managed to completely cover the cost of the investment through cinema sales. The Diallo method has inspired others to follow suit. In 2005, the radio presenter, Zida Aboubacar, enjoyed great success with the film Ouaga zoodo. Other producers, inspired by this example in Burkina Faso, organised video projections, sometimes in makeshift cinemas, for lack of real cinemas[+] NoteIn 2008, 70,000 people went to see the film entitled Paris à tout prix by the Cameroonian, Joséphine Ndagnon.X [11]. Boubacar Diallo kept going, making eleven films in seven years[+] NoteTraque à Ouaga, Sofia, Dossier brûlant, Code Phénix, L'or des Younga, La belle, la brute et le berger, Môgô puissant, Sam le caïd, Cœur de lion, Clara et Juliette et Roméo. See the Films du dromadaire website.X [12]. One of them (Cœur de lion[+] NoteEuropean Union prize at the 2009 Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou.X [13], that came out in 2008) received international financial assistance, and was also turned into cinema format. All the other films[+] NoteExcept Code Phénix which was turned into film format to be presented at FESPACO.X [14] relied on video projection only; they were self-financing and recovered their investment through cinema takings, product placement and sales to television and the video market. This new production economy reminds us of the Nigerian video industry which brings out each year over 1,500 films shot as videos without outside or state financial assistance; but the films produced in Burkina Faso are generally of better technical quality, and can therefore be projected onto cinema screens.
Back to summary

Nigeria: pioneering experiences with the big screen

Nigeria, however, has not had its final word, and is indeed the best-placed country for distributing its films across the whole of Africa. Its successful low-budget video productions have created stars, some of whom are recognised throughout the whole of the continent, or almost all. The film Ije, mentioned above, guaranteed its success by bringing together on the screen the two most “bankable” stars of Nollywood, Genevieve Nnaji and Omotola Jalade-Ekeinde. At the same time, a film labelled “made in Nigeria” is enough to attract public from all social categories in most sub-Saharan Africa. These films have the reputation of promising to be entertaining. They ensure that the viewer will get a film that is bold, bounding with energy and rhythm. Ije, with its budget of over two million dollars and its box-office success, could well be the spearhead of future Nigerian productions that are suitable for the big screen, but able at the same time to reap the benefits of the success of the video industry. The movement may well be slow and tentative, but the renewal of Nigerian cinema is on the way. One of the most obvious signs is the fact that Jeta Amata, the person who opened up the path in 2006 with The Amazing Grace, has been able to carry on making big-budget films for the cinema screen: Inale came out in October 2010 and is the first actual Nigerian musical, and Black Gold, which is planned to come out in 2011, is an adventure film against a backdrop of oil and mafia and guerrilla warfare in the Niger delta.
Back to summary

The French market is no longer the last refuge for films from French-speaking Africa

Films from French-speaking Africa have long since stopped being distributed across the whole of the continent, but they have managed to break-through elsewhere. At the end of the 1980s and the start of the 1990s, a handful of films (Yeelen, Bal poussière, Yaaba, Ballon d'or) managed to make box-office figures of in excess of 200,000 in France; but after that the momentum lost pace, and lastingly. It was not until 2006 that comparable figures were reached once more with 226,000 ticket sales for Bamako by Abderrahmane Sissako. The success of this film was however an exception; it did not produce a knock-on effect that would benefit other African films. In 2009, the film from sub-Saharan Africa that attracted most ticket sales in France (Les Saignantes, by Jean-Pierre Bekolo) was only seen by 382 people[+] NoteFigures from Le Film Français magazine quoted by Claire Diao on the website Afrik.com.X [15]! In the same year, the Parisian cinema “Images d'ailleurs” that had been run by the film-maker from Togo, Sanvi Panou, closed. It would seem African film-makers can no longer rely on a faithful Africanist public in France. In 2010, the film Un homme qui crie by Mahamat Saleh Haroun only achieved 55,000 ticket sales, despite winning the jury award at the Cannes Film Festival[+] NoteIn 2007, Daratt, the previous film by Mahamat Saleh Haroun, attracted 46,000 cinema-goers. For box-office figures, see Cinefeed.com.X [16].In 2007, Daratt, the previous film by Mahamat Saleh Haroun, attracted 46,000 cinema-goers. For box-office figures, see Cinefeed.comIn 2007, Daratt, the previous film by Mahamat Saleh Haroun, attracted 46,000 cinema-goers. For box-office figures, see Cinefeed.com  fgsdgdghdfhdhfrgdrgdfghdhghs       NoteIn 2007, Daratt, the previous film by Mahamat Saleh Haroun, attracted 46,000 cinema-goers. For box-office figures, see Cinefeed.co[17]
Back to summary

Between African ghetto and universal cinema

French-speaking African film-makers are lacking viewers at home, but they are no longer sure to find any in France, even when the artistic quality of their works is recognised. This lack of prospects has an impact on budgets. Most feature-length African films are made with less than a million Euros. The unfortunate experience of Waati by Souleymane Cissé seems to have brought large products to a halt. This film, produced by Daniel Toscan du Plantier had a budget of twenty million francs – unheard-of for a film from sub-Saharan Africa – brought in only 54,000 viewers in France in 1995. This failure undermined the chances of several other film-makers (including Idrissa Ouedraogo) who, based on their previous successes, could have hoped for ambitious projects with more comfortable budgets. Labelling oneself an African film-maker no longer provides access in France to a public of aficionados. But is it possible to claim to be film maker without a reference to your origins if you come from sub-Saharan Africa? Djo Munga from the Congo came across the director of a film school in Belgium who felt that his vision was “not African enough”. He refused “to be confined by people’s narrow-mindedness” and made off. His first feature-length film, Viva Riva! looks a little like revenge; he can now consider himself to be one of the first Africans to have broken into the category of “just a film-maker”[+] NoteOther film-makers from the developing world have acquired an international reputation. This is the case of the Algerian Merzak Allouache, who was one of the champions of the box-office in France with Chouchou or the Haitian Raul Peck (who shot for the American channel HBO and for France 3 – L'affaire Villemin – and Arte – Moloch tropical). But most French-speaking African film-makers are condemned to be labelled as African film-makers. This label is imposed by those with whom he comes into contact and has the effect of being a geographical, artistic and economic summons.X [18]. His film was inconveniently misplaced, then “forgotten about”[+] NotePerhaps he has been secretly censored because of his erotic scenes.X              [20] by the Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou that didn’t select him. And yet he was selected by the Berlin Film Festival and found distributors in the United States, in Canada, in the United Kingdom, in Belgium, Germany, Australia and South Africa[+] NoteParadoxically, France, usually the saviour of African cinema, appears to have ignored this film, at least for the time being.X [21]. It would seem that the “insufficiently African” view of Djo Munga has the merit of being quite simply universal. Universality is probably the best niche that French-speaking African film-makers can aspire to, and can equally be used to win back the African public[+] NoteA unique event in the history of African cinema - which has been characterised by a partitioning between French-speaking and English-speaking Africa - was the film Viva Riva, which was favoured by the jury of the African Movie Academy of Nigeria, picking up six prizes in March 2011.X [22].
 
Translated from the French by Peter Moss
--
Photo credit : Philippe Streicher / Flickr
Back to summary

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Olivier BARLET, Les cinémas d'Afrique noire – le regard en question, L'Harmattan, Paris, 1997.
 
Lucia SAKS, Cinema in a democratic South Africa – the race for representation. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2010.
Back to summary
  • 1. Economically, the French-speaking and English-speaking zones of Africa are often compared. Former British colonies are often highly populous countries whose development has been built on a larger population and internal market: 38 million inhabitants in Kenya, 48 million in South Africa, almost 150 million in Nigeria. In the French-speaking zone, only the Democratic Republic of Congo, with its 70 million inhabitants, has such similar advantages, but the country suffers from the greed of its leaders and a devastating civil war, and is among the poorest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita. Wherever you go, the market is more active and has a more business-like attitude in English-speaking Africa. That said, in the cultural field, the French-speaking part of the continent has for a long time been more dynamic thanks to a cultural policy and international aid that support creativity. This is why African cinema had been more or less dominated by French-speakers until the year 2000.
  • 2. 2008 figure provided by the National film and video foundation. Of these 734 screens, only four are in cinemas with only one screen. 40 % of cinemas in South Africa are complexes with eight screens and more. In this country, by law, any new shopping mall of a certain size has to include a multiplex cinema.
  • 3. Nu Metro is one of the brands of the Avusa group (ex Johnnic) that operates eighty cinema complexes with a total of 196 screens in South Africa.
  • 4. In 2006, the representative of Nu Metro in Nigeria even planned to put forward an offer to take over the cinema “Le Burkina” in Ouagadougou, a French-speaking bastion and real historical safe haven of African cinema.
  • 5. This was the case for De Kunle Afolayan by Stephanie Okereke, and two other films by Jeta Amata (the author of The Amazing Grace), Inale and Black Gold.
  • 6.
  • 7. Chineze Anyaene is the first pupil at her school to have shot a full-length film while studying. On her Facebook page, we can read this quote by Winston Churchill: “Success is the ability to go from one failure to another with no loss of enthusiasm”.
  • 8. Some have even been exported: 115,426 people went to see Marock by Laïla Marrakchi in France in 2006.
  • 9. Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou.
  • 10. 15 % in 2005, 2 % in 2006; 10 % over the past eight months of 2010 (source Nfvf.co.za).
  • 11. In 2008, 70,000 people went to see the film entitled Paris à tout prix by the Cameroonian, Joséphine Ndagnon.
  • 12. Traque à Ouaga, Sofia, Dossier brûlant, Code Phénix, L'or des Younga, La belle, la brute et le berger, Môgô puissant, Sam le caïd, Cœur de lion, Clara et Juliette et Roméo. See the Films du dromadaire website.
  • 13. European Union prize at the 2009 Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou.
  • 14. Except Code Phénix which was turned into film format to be presented at FESPACO.
  • 15. Figures from Le Film Français magazine quoted by Claire Diao on the website Afrik.com.
  • 16. In 2007, Daratt, the previous film by Mahamat Saleh Haroun, attracted 46,000 cinema-goers. For box-office figures, see Cinefeed.com.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Other film-makers from the developing world have acquired an international reputation. This is the case of the Algerian Merzak Allouache, who was one of the champions of the box-office in France with Chouchou or the Haitian Raul Peck (who shot for the American channel HBO and for France 3 – L'affaire Villemin – and Arte – Moloch tropical). But most French-speaking African film-makers are condemned to be labelled as African film-makers. This label is imposed by those with whom he comes into contact and has the effect of being a geographical, artistic and economic summons.
  • 20. Perhaps he has been secretly censored because of his erotic scenes.
  • 21. Paradoxically, France, usually the saviour of African cinema, appears to have ignored this film, at least for the time being.
  • 22. A unique event in the history of African cinema - which has been characterised by a partitioning between French-speaking and English-speaking Africa - was the film Viva Riva, which was favoured by the jury of the African Movie Academy of Nigeria, picking up six prizes in March 2011.
Would you like to add or correct something? Contact the editorial staff